Intermediate/Advanced Microsoft Word

Headers, Footers, Footnotes, Endnotes, and Section Breaks

Footnotes and Endnotes


A footnote contains a note of reference, explanation, or comment and usually appears at the bottom of the page. To create a footnote, place an insertion point in your text after the text to be referenced.

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Editing Footnotes

Edit text in the footnote window the same way you edit text within the document. When you double-click the footnote reference in your document, the footnote window opens and the insertion point is located at the beginning of the appropriate footnote.

If you plan to edit footnotes frequently, leave the footnote window open at the bottom of the screen. Your footnotes will always be visible, and you can click next to the footnote you want to edit.

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Deleting Footnotes

To delete a footnote, select the appropriate footnote reference in the document and press the key. You can also delete footnotes using the Cut command on the Edit menu. Both methods delete the footnote reference, delete the footnote text, and automatically renumber the remaining footnotes.

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Using Endnotes

Endnotes are footnotes that appear at the end of a document, rather than at the bottom of each page. To select the Endnote option, choose Footnote from the Insert menu. Click the Options button in the Footnote dialog box, and select the All Endnotes tab. Choose End of Document for Footnote placement and click OK.

The Note Options dialog box contains options that control the numbering and placement of footnotes and the type of mark used to separate footnotes from the body text.

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Headers and Footers

A header is text that appears within the top margin on each page of a document or section. A footer appears in the bottom margin of each page Headers and footers normally include descriptive text such as chapter titles, volume or page numbers, and dates.

Each section in a document can have its own header. You can also suppress the header on the first page of a document or a section.

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Creating a Header and Footer

To create a header or footer, choose Header/Footer from the View menu.

The Header and Footer window is divided into three sections. Press the key to move from the left section to the center and from the center to the right section of the header or footer. In the Header/Footer dialog box there are buttons for including page numbers, dates and other options as shown in the figure below.

To save time you can choose from some pre-formatted Insert AutoText entries to place in any portion of the Header or Footer.

Some of the buttons most commonly used:

When you have completed typing text in the Header and/or Footer, click the Close button to return to your document.

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Viewing the Header and Footer in a Document

The header does not display in Normal view. To see the header, select Page layout from the View menu or click the Page Layout View button at the bottom left corner of the screen.

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Customizing Headers and Footers

The header for the first page of a document is often suppressed or customized. A book that contains chapter heading pages might also suppress or customize the header for the first page of each chapter.

To suppress or customize the first page, select Header and Footer from the View menu, and click the Page Setup button in the Header and Footer dialog box. If you want a different header on the first page, click on Different First Page.

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Inserting Section Breaks

Use section breaks to divide a document into logical sections. You can create section breaks to separate chapters, topics or unrelated parts of a document. Each section in a document can have its own unique header or footer. To create a Section Break, select Break from the Insert menu. The Break dialog box has four options for controlling how the section break affects your document.

The Next Page option creates a page break at the cursor location and starts the new header/footer section on the next page. The Continuous break is used to break text into single and multiple columns. The Even Page and Odd Page breaks start the new section on the next even or odd page in your document. When you create a section break, a dotted, double line in your document represents the position of the break.

There will be times when you wish to change the style or information in a long document. Perhaps the placement of Odd / Even page text, Index or Glossary material etc., using section breaks makes the task so much easier. Choose Break... from the Insert menu, and then select Continuous.